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Plural forms of nouns ending in -co and -ca | Negation | Physical sensations and feelings

Italian Course: Unit 14

1) Listen to the following dialogue:

ON THE TRAIN TO VENICE

Manuela: Sveglia, ragazze! Siamo in ritardo!
Giorgia: Che ore sono?
Manuela: Sono le 8, il treno parte tra mezzora e non abbiamo ancora fatto le valigie!
Veronica: Sbrighiamoci.

... IN TRENO

Veronica: Per fortuna ce l'abbiamo fatta.
Giorgia: Nella fretta non abbiamo fatto colazione. Avete fame?
Manuela e Veronica: Sì, decisamente! Qui fa freddo nel nostro vagone.
Giorgia: Ho delle merendine con me.
Manuela e Veronica: Grazie!

2) Negation:

Non abbiamo ancora fatto le valigie! We haven't packed yet!
Nella fretta non abbiamo fatto colazione. In all the rush we didn't have breakfast.

<< Sentential adverbs

3) Expressing physical sensations and feelings: To express sensations felt at a certain time we use the verbs avere (to have) or essere (to be) plus a noun or an adjective.

Avere + freddo/caldo/paura/fame/sonno (noun) to be cold/hot/afraid/hungry/sleepy

- Avete fame? Are you hungry?
- Ho freddo! I'm cold.

Essere + stanco/preoccupato/felice/annoiato (adjective) to be tired/worried/happy/bored

- Sono stanco. I'm tired.
- Sei annoiata. You're bored.

NB: Adjectives which come after essere have to agree with the subject in terms of gender and number.

4) The plural form of nouns and adjectives ending in -co/-ca

For nouns and adjectives which end in -co and -ca we apply the following rules:
The plural of the feminine form is always -che.
The plural of the masculine form is -chi if the stress is on the penultimate syllable while if the stress is on the third from last syllable the adjective or noun ends in -ci.

Examples:

Banco — banchi
stress is on penultimate syllable: "banco": ban- co

Tipico — tipici
stress is on third from last syllable: ti- pi- co

Magico — magici
stress is on third from last syllable: ma- gi- co

5) Test what you've learnt in this lesson:

<< Exercise 14-a
<< Exercise 14-b


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